Sheffi, Y. The Northridge earthquake produced the strongest ground motions ever instrumentally recorded in a North American urban setting. The building containing the set was later "red tagged" as unsafe due to the damage it sustained. Over $25 billion dollars in damage. Although given the name "Northridge", where the quake was believed to have been centered and substantial damage occurred, the actual epicenter was pinpointed in the neighboring community of Reseda within several days.  CSUN also received assistance from government agencies FEMA and OES to support the recovery effort and serve the needs of the local community.  The Los Angeles City Hall suffered no damage. Northridge earthquake A home in Pacific Palisades that fell down the side of a hill above Pacific Coast Highway is seen on January 21, 1994. A magnitude 6.8 (Ms) earthquake centered under the community of Northridge in the San Fernando Valley shook the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area at 4:31 a.m. local time on Monday, January 17, 1994. They suffered more damage from this earthquake than any other since the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Most casualties and damage occurred in multi-story wood frame buildings (such as the three-story Northridge Meadows apartment building). The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a moment magnitude 6.7 (Mw), blind thrust earthquake that occurred on January 17, 1994, at 4:30:55 a.m. PST in the San Fernando Valley region of the County of Los Angeles. Los Angeles' radio and television stations were knocked off the air, but resumed coverage later. The analysis of the effect of Northridge earthquake on behavior of structures has been investigated by many researchers. Ground deformations at this level of accelerations are expected to be highly nonlinear (Hardin , Damage occurred up to 85 miles (137 km) away, with the most damage in the west San Fernando Valley, and the cities and neighborhoods of Santa Monica, Hollywood, Simi Valley and Santa Clarita. A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. Most were unable to meet this deadline and only managed to achieve compliance in 2008 or 2009.. Some structures were not red-tagged until months later because the damage was not immediately evident. Damage to wood-frame apartment houses was widespread in the San Fernando Valley and Santa Monica areas, especially to structures with soft first floor or lower-level parking garages. He likely did not realize until too late in the early morning darkness that the elevated roadway had collapsed. It presents an opportunity to examine a significant number of such buildings affected to various degrees by severe ground shaking, to document actual damage in depth, and to dispel the myths about the Faults with the highest probability of rupturing in a magnitude 6.7 (Northridge-sized) earthquake in the next 30 years. The Northridge earthquake produced the strongest ground motions ever instrumentally recorded in a North American urban setting. Damage was wide-spread: Sections of major freeways with unwrapped supports and unextended expansion joints collapsed; parking structures and office buildings with concrete framing (non-ductile) collapsed; and numerous apartment buildings suffered irreparable damage. Tendays before the event, a swarm of small earth-quakes (including … The damage The Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1993 was 6.7 on the Richter scale. The interchange's collapse cut off freeway access to Los Angeles for hundreds of thousands of residents of northern Los Angeles County.  The 1994 Northridge earthquake greatly affected the CSUN campus, damaging much of its infrastructure, and causing multiple fires and explosions throughout the campus. The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a magnitude of 6.7 (Mw), blind thrust earthquake which occurred on January 17 at 4:30:55 a.m. PST in the San Fernando Valley region of the County of Los Angeles. Earthquake Northridge California 1994 . Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Northridge Earthquake of 1994: Ground Motions and Geotechnical Aspects", "Northridge 1994: 6.7 – 1km NNW of Reseda, CA", https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70208422, "Significant Earthquakes of the World 1994", "The Large Aftershocks of the Northridge Earthquake and their Relationship to Mainshock Slip and Fault Zone Complexity", "1994 Quake Still Fresh in Los Angeles Minds", "Show Event – NGDC Natural Hazard Images", "USGS Northridge Earthquake 10th Anniversary", "Southern California Earthquake Data Center". The University of Southern California suffered some structural damage to several older campus buildings, but classes were conducted as scheduled. Other local television stations, including KTLA, KCAL-TV, KCBS-TV and KABC-TV, were also knocked off the air. California State University, Northridge, was the closest university to the epicenter. The high accelerations, both vertical and horizontal, lifted structures off their foundations and shifted walls — laterally triggering major fires. Twenty years ago, on Jan. 17, 1994, at 4:31 a.m., the Northridge earthquake struck Southern California — the 6.7-magnitude quake killed 60 people and … The Northridge earthquake was no exception, resulting in the greatest loss to California historic adobes since the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Landers earthquake [Blewitt et al., 1993; Bock et al., 1993a], the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Das Northridge-Erdbeben ereignete sich am 17.Januar 1994 um 4:30 Uhr Ortszeit (12:30 UTC) in Reseda in der Nähe der Stadt Los Angeles.Das Erdbeben hatte eine hohe Magnitude von 6,7 M w und erreichte auf der Mercalliskala die Stufe IX (zerstörerisch). The United States Postal Service suspended all mail service throughout the Los Angeles area for several days. All 58 buildings on campus sustained significant damage, resulting in a $406 million recovery effort (equivalent to $700 million today). Occurring 16.5 miles northwest of Los Angeles, the height of the Northridge quake activity was just 11.8 miles below the Earth's crust, making sitting ducks of one of the nation's largest populations. The exact number of fatalities is unknown, with sources estimating it at 60 or "over 60", to 72, where most estimates fall around 60. The Church on the Way, which is near the epicenter, suffered moderate damage to the church campus building. The Martin Luther King Jr. The January 17, 1994 Northridge main‐shock was analyzed using an empirical Green's function approach to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of fault slip. Structural damage was recorded as far away as 52 miles from the heart of the shake, and earthquake activity was felt from Las Vegas, Nevada, to San Diego. The National Geophysical Data Center placed the hypocenter's geographical coordinates at 34°12′47″N 118°32′13″W / 34.21306°N 118.53694°W / 34.21306; -118.53694 and at a depth of 11.4 miles (18.3 km). The long-term (1978 to 1993) background seismicity in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, most of the fatalities occurred in buildings suffering from this particular type of irregular configuration. Schneider, E., Hajjeh, R. A., Spiegel, R. A., Jibson, R. W., Harp, E. L., Marshall, G. A., . Figure 1. This article examines the earthquake's impact on the mental health of an existing cohort of veterans who had previously used the Sepulveda Veterans Health Administration Medical Center. Although casualties resulting from the Northridge quake were relatively minimal because it was early morning and on the Martin Luther King holiday, will such coincidences save lives next time? 1992 Mojave (Garlock) Earthquake (SCEDC) 1993 Wheeler Ridge Earthquake (SCEDC) 1994 Northridge Earthquake (SCEDC) 1994 Northridge Earthquake (USGS) 1995 Ridgecrest Earthquakes (SCEDC) 1996 Coso Earthquake (SCEDC) 1997 Calico Earthquake (SCEDC) 1998 Coso Earthquakes (SCEDC) 1998 Crafton Hills (Redlands) Earthquake (SCEDC) The Northridge earthquake was used as a plot device in the 2004 film, A song about the earthquake was featured in the, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 18:05. 114,039 buildings damaged. This followed on an earlier economic conference the administration had done in 1993, focusing on recovery after a series of aerospace spending cuts. Total daily deaths in Los Angeles County for January 1992, 1993 and 1994, showing an increase on January 17, 1994—the day of the NEQ. The main courtroom set was in shambles. Earthquake readiness  Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nevada, about 220 miles (350 km) from the epicenter. Portions of a number of major roads and freeways, including Interstate 10 over La Cienega Boulevard, and the interchanges of Interstate 5 with California State Route 14, 118, and Interstate 210, were closed because of structural failure or collapse. Northridge Earthquake. The acute phase of the disaster ended within 48 to 72 hours and public health then became the predominant health-care issue. NBC's The Tonight Show, hosted by Jay Leno, took place in the NBC Studios in Burbank, close to the epicenter of the quake. Earthquake Northridge California 1994 . 1175 November 1, 1997:1174–80 EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON CARDIAC DEATH actions be deemed cost-effective before they are funded e.g., Clinton 1993, 1994; U.S. Department of Transportation n.d. . The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP), a CGS program, manages more than 1,300 strong motion instruments statewide that contribute data to ShakeMap. Suicide rates increased in the three calendar years (1994-1996) following the Northridge earthquake as compared to the three calendar years (1991-1993) prior to the earthquake. The after-shockzoneaveraged 22eventsperyearfrom A a at E-10 E.X-20-30 B 30 20' 10' Distance(km) SCIENCE * VOL.  Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. Over 12,500 after shocks, ten of which were over 5.0 on the Richter scale. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, home to the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, suffered more than $44 million in damage.  Actress Iris Adrian died in September 1994 from complications of a broken hip she suffered in the earthquake. Study raises Northridge quake death toll to 72. The quake produced unusually strong ground accelerations in the range of 1.0 g. Damage was also caused by fire and landslides. Housing Reconstruction After Two Major Earthquakes: The 1994 Northridge Earthquake in the United States and the 1999 Chi‐Chi Earthquake in Taiwan . All of the earthquake sequences in the Wes Craven film New Nightmare were filmed a month prior to the Northridge quake. [Donnellan et al., 1993; Hudnut et al., 1995]. “HH” indicates num-ber of households in which at least one person experienced this level of injury. Additional damage occurred about 50 miles (80 km) southeast in the city of Anaheim, located in Orange County, as the scoreboard at Anaheim Stadium collapsed onto several hundred seats.  The damage caused a shutdown of the campus and delayed the start of the 1994 Spring semester.  The season five episode of Seinfeld entitled "The Pie" was due to begin shooting on January 17 before stage sets were damaged. An estimated $350 million (equivalent to $600 million today) was used to supply the number of trailers and domes which housed classes and administration offices. Northridge earthquake injuries after Seligson and Shoaf 2003 . In the weeks following the quake, many San Fernando Valley residents had either lost their homes entirely or experienced structural damage too severe to continue living in them without making repairs. Urban Transportation Networks-Equilibrium Analysis with Mathematical 11,846 injured. Details of some disaster-related deaths are released", "The Freeways; Collapsed Freeways Cripple City Where People Live Behind Wheel", "The Northridge Earthquake: 20 Years Ago Today – Info and images of collapsed freeways", "Camarillo Gets a Little Good News: MetroLink Is Coming", "Last of Post-Quake Metrolink Stations Opening in Oxnard", "Quake-Ravaged CSUN Reopens Amid Confusion", "20 Years after Northridge Earthquake, CSUN Is Not Just Back, Better", "Flashback: NBC4 Covers 1994 Northridge Earthquake", "The Northridge Earthquake: 20 Years Ago Today", Southern California Earthquake Data Center, USC Earthquake Engineering-Strong Motion Group, SAC Steel Project (Study of welded steel failures), Helicopter Footage Filmed After The Quake, City of Los Angeles Re-survey of the San Fernando Valley, California State University Northridge Botanic Garden, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1994_Northridge_earthquake&oldid=997475836, Geology of Los Angeles County, California, 1994 natural disasters in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles needing additional references from April 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011, Articles needing additional references from October 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  LAPD motorcycle officer Clarence Wayne Dean died because of the collapse of the Newhall Pass interchange, falling 40 feet from the damaged connector from southbound 14 to southbound I-5. However, the damage revealed that some structural specifications did not perform as intended. Rose, A. and D. Lim. January 17, 1994 - California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) January 17, 1994 ... California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) January 10, 1994 - California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) September 1, 1993 - Pickup truck being taken off an cargo airplane. Eng. The Los Angeles Public Library shut down most of its branches; books were knocked down during the quake.  The stadium was vacant at the time. The Northridge Earthquake: Vulnerability and Disaster Robert Bolin. In all, eight Southern California freeways were damaged, including the Highway 14 and Interstate 5 interchange. The seismic event killed two CSUN students at the Northridge Meadows Complex along with 14 other residents.  The "official" death toll was placed at 57; 33 people died immediately or within a few days from injuries sustained, and many died from indirect causes, such as stress-induced cardiac events. , Sixteen people were killed as a result of the collapse of the Northridge Meadows apartment complex. The campus was unable to use any of its classrooms because of the damage the buildings sustained. Because of these revelations, building codes were revised. NBC station KNBC was the first television station to go on the air, with reporter Joe Rico beginning the station's coverage just two minutes after the earthquake began while anchors Kent Shocknek, Carla Aragon, Colleen Williams and Chuck Henry were producing special reports throughout the morning. 72 individuals lost their lives. The 1994 Northridge earthquake killed more than 50 people and created widespread devastation in Los Angeles. FM radio stations such as KRTH, KIIS, KOST and KCBS radio were bringing special reports when morning show hosts Robert W. Morgan, Rick Dees and Charlie Tuna were calling Los Angeles residents and others from their sister stations to bring their belongings to the stations and advising people not to drink water. 266 * 21 OCTOBER1994 1981 to 1993 that wereaboveM1.7, which is typical of the dispersed background seis-micity in the Los Angeles region. In addition, property damage was estimated to be $13–50 billion (equivalent to $22–86 billion in 2014), making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history. USGS Response to an Urban Earthquake - Northridge 1994 (Summary) Sixty people were killed, more than 7,000 injured, 20,000 homeless and more than 40,000 buildings damaged in Los Angeles, Ventura, Orange and San Bernardino Counties as a result of the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. Background The earthquake that struck the Los Angeles area at 4:31 a.m. on January 17, 1994, was one of the strongest earthquakes ever recorded in a major city in North America. The Northridge earthquake sequence consists of over 10,000 aftershocks (Hauksson et al., 1994); two of which had Mw6.0 estimates (Dreger, 1994; Thio and Kanamori, 1996). Subsequently, a team was sent out to film footage of the quake-damaged areas of the city.  Metrolink leased equipment from Amtrak, San Francisco's Caltrain and Toronto, Canada's GO Transit to handle the sudden onslaught of passengers. In December 1993, the Journal of ... called it controversial.  In addition, the newly completed student parking structure C collapsed, and had to be demolished. 1997. As a result, the state legislature passed a law requiring all hospitals in California to ensure that their acute care units and emergency rooms would be in earthquake-resistant buildings by January 1, 2005. The most notable was to the Santa Monica Freeway, Interstate 10, known as the busiest freeway in the United States, congesting nearby surface roads for three months while the freeway was repaired. , Some archives of film and entertainment programming were also affected. Many multifamily apartment buildings in Santa Monica were yellow-tagged and red-tagged. Also, because of known seismic activity in California, area building codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes. The 17 January 1994, M 6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake produced ground accelerations that exceeded 1 g, or nearly the highest levels ever recorded in an earthquake (Trifunac et aL, 1994). A dislocation model of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake determined from strong ground motions, USGS Open-file Report, 94-278, 16pp. Although the vast majority of homes in the area, with the exception of a few particular neighborhoods, were relatively unaffected; many feared an aftershock to rival or exceed the severity of the first one. The Northridge earthquake is part of the temporal increase in earthquake activity in the Los Angeles area since 1970. The Northridge earthquake triggered a very large number Written discussion of this paper is welcomed and will be of strong motion instruments throughout southern California, received by the Editor until August 3 1, 1995 (address inside providing the most extensive strong motion data for any front cover). Wald, D. J., and T. H. Heaton (1994b). The earthquake also gained worldwide attention because of damage to the vast freeway network, which serves millions of commuters every day. CrossRef Google Scholar PubMed JACC Vol. A ShakeMap is a near-real-time seismic network product that helps guide emergency response efforts within minutes of a strong earthquake.  It occurred on a previously undiscovered fault, now named the Northridge Blind Thrust Fault (also known as the Pico Thrust Fault). 5 KLONER ET AL. Objective: The 1994 earthquake that struck Northridge, California, led to the closure of the Veterans Health Administration Medical Center at Sepulveda. Some people even made temporary relocations closer to their jobs while their homes or neighborhoods were being rebuilt. The Archdiocese of Los Angeles's Cathedral of St. Vibiana suffered severe damage and canceled activities until a new cathedral was built in 2002. Wiley Online Library. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires. The comparison of the seismic behavior of underground braced walls with ACI 318 design method reveals that bending moment and shear force of the walls under Northridge earthquake loads were observed to reach 2.8 and 2.7 times as large as the respective allowable limits. In response, the California Legislature created the California Earthquake Authority (CEA), which is a publicly managed but privately funded organization that offers minimal coverage. Five days later, it was estimated that between 40,000 and 60,000 customers were still without public water service. While a notable aftershock never came, many residents opted to stay in shelters or live with friends and family outside the area for a short time following.. The set, which is at ABC Television Center, suffered major damage, including partial structural collapse and water damage. 1985. On the other side of the Santa Monica Mountains, which separate the valley from the rest of Los Angeles, entire sections of the Santa Monica Freeway collapsed, shutting down a key traffic artery linking Downtown with the city's west side. An unusual effect of the Northridge earthquake was an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in Ventura County. Ina maximum parsimony analysis of all infor- (1997). The Los Angeles Unified School District closed local schools throughout the area, which reopened one week later. In the three years that followed Northridge, more than 681,000 residents applied for assistance from federal and state governments — making the earthquake both a devastating natural and economic disaster.  In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. The Los Angeles Clippers of the NBA had three home games postponed or moved to other venues. For example, the behavior of underground walls has been evaluated for the Northridge earthquake using numerical methods. The earthquake was one of the …  The death toll was 57, with more than 8,700 injured.  UCLA and Pierce College opened their doors and allowed CSUN students to use their libraries while providing shuttle buses to and from the university. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994, killed 57 people and injured an estimated 10,000 persons. As reviewed by Aki , and more thoroughly by Beresnev and Wen , scattered seismological evidence of sediment nonlinearity has emerged from more recent The city of Santa Monica suffered significant damage. Structural damage was reported to more than 12,000 homes, businesses, schools and hospitals, leaving many people homeless for extended periods. Enrollment dropped by approximately 1,000 students, leaving some homeless as dormitories were closed due to damage which rendered them unsafe and which required repair.. Structural damage was recorded as far away as 52 miles from the heart of the shake, and earthquake activity was felt from Las Vegas, Nevada, to San Diego. Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nevada, about 220 miles (350 km) from the epicenter. However, this earthquake also provided a rare opportunity for understanding and assessing the damage that can occur as a result of … The airport was reopened in stages after the quake. See more ideas about los angeles, northridge earthquake, northridge. In Valencia, the California Institute of the Arts experienced heavy damage, with classes relocated to a nearby Lockheed test facility for the remainder of 1994. Especially hard hit was the area between Santa Monica Canyon and Saint John's Hospital, a linear corridor that suffered a significant amount of property damage.  The 6.7 magnitude earthquake damaged several buildings as well as destroying all communications, such as telephone lines and causing computer systems to shut down. The daily commute for many drivers in the weeks following was significantly lengthened, notably for those traveling between Santa Clarita and Los Angeles, and commuters on I-10 traveling to and from the Westside. The quake had a duration of approximately 10–20 seconds, and its peak ground acceleration of 1.82 g0 (17.8 m/s2) was the highest ever instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America. The 203 cases reported, of which three resulted in fatalities, constituted roughly 10 times the normal rate in the initial eight weeks. Moderate damage to the built environment was widespread; severe damage included collapsed buildings and highway overpasses. Interruptions to road transport caused Metrolink to experiment with service to Camarillo in February and Oxnard in April, which continues today as the Ventura County Line, and extended the Antelope Valley Line almost ten years ahead of schedule. More than 8,700 were injured including 1,600 who required hospitalization. Since 1900, an average of 120 earthquakes per year worldwide are in the magnitude-6.0 to 6.9 range. 556 K. PORTER, K. SHOAF, AND H.A. The third major earthquake to occur in the state in 23 years (after the 1971 San Fernando Valley and 1989 San Francisco–Oakland earthquakes), the Angel Stadium of Anaheim (then known as Anaheim Stadium) suffered some damage when the scoreboard fell into the seats. In particular, buildings with an unstable first floor (such as those with parking areas on the bottom) performed poorly.  As expected, unreinforced masonry buildings and houses on steep slopes suffered damage. 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