informational influence social psychology

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For instance, men’s and women’s views of what the ideal body image is have changed over time. This is a perfect example of informational influence, where information from others provides a person more information about a social situation (Schneider et al., 2012). The work of both of these group decision-making factors makes for interesting dynamics in this game, as we watch contestants grapple with both informational and normative pressures. Informational social influence leads to real, long-lasting changes in beliefs. Groupshift is the phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position. In addition to environmental factors, Zimbardo attributes many of the guards’ actions to deindividuation afforded by the authority position and even the anonymity of the uniforms. While social psychology tends to be an academic field, the research that social psychologists perform has a powerful influence on our understanding of mental health and well-being. We can see how the producers manipulate the group development process, how the fundamental attribution error influences players, and how group decision-making concepts effect how the game plays out. Some other definitions include: 1. In social psychology, informational social influence is a type of conformity. Low-balling: Low-balling is a tactic frequently used by salesmen. Later, we viewers often see interviews with that person, who will explain their actions or attitudes as responses to a situation. The experimenter (E) convinces the subject (T) to give what he believes are painful electric shocks to another subject, who is actually an actor (L). Lesson 10: Overcoming the Fundamental Attribution Error, Lesson 12: COVID and How it Ended the Stigma of Online Dating. For more information, follow the main article links provided. Compliance is considered a social phenomenon, meaning that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people often plays a role in someone’s decision whether or not to comply with a given request. Organizational Life AND Teams. An individual was asked to state which line, A, B, or C, matched the first line. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27 , 279-296. https://online.alvernia.edu/articles/group-polarization-social-psychology “Group behavior” refers to the ways people behave in large- or small-group situations. For instance, Jane asks her parents to pay for her vacation to Australia. While conformity is often viewed as a negative characteristic in American culture, it is very common. This often means that they will go along with whatever the group is doing, whether it be rioting, looting, lynching, or engaging in cyberbullying. Informational social influence (also called social proof) occurs most often when: The situation is ambiguous. Morel's used cars - geograph.org.uk - 437167. The participant would enter a room and sit at a table with several other people. A., & Coutts, L. M. (2012). People exhibit conformity when they change attitudes or behaviors to reflect a perceived norm. Over the course of several trials, subjects were required to select the comparison line that corresponded in length to the reference line. Psychologists have proposed a variety of definitions to encompass the social influence that conformity exerts. Group membership can provide companionship, survival and security, affiliation status, power and control, and achievement. Listed below are some major types of social influence that are being researched in the field of social psychology. Kelman's varieties Other factors associated with conformity are culture, gender, age, and importance of stimuli. Sometimes you may need to seek out experts, conform to the way others or a group are behaving, or look to some other source of information. (2017). The person receiving the “shock” would make noises of pain, complain of heart pains, and even demonstrate seizure-like behavior. Group strength, group size, immediacy, and similarity are all factors that can influence compliance in an individual. Give examples of groupthink, groupshift, and deindividuation. Some of these are as follows: Solomon Asch’s conformity experiments are one of the best-known illustrations of conformity. On the other hand, situations in Survivor often occur where an individual is certain they will vote a certain way but then discover information from other group members that changes their perception of the situation, often leading to a change in their vote. They flat-out refuse, because it is extremely expensive. Perceived motion was caused by the visual illusion known as the autokinetic effect. New products or fashions are introduced by innovators, who tend to be creative and nonconforming. As viewers, we never get to see teams work seamlessly together, but we do get to see the repeated formation and conflicts that come with the initial stages of team development. As we see in the case of Survivor, these fundamental attribution errors play a major role in how contestants view one another and select alliance members. The participant believed his role was randomly assigned. Milgram experiment setup: Illustration of the setup of a Milgram experiment. 1 a). Muzafer Sherif was interested in knowing how many people would change their opinions to bring them in line with the opinion of a group. There are two major motivators to conformity: normative influence and informational influence. 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There are both positive and negative implications of group influence on individual behavior. Higher levels of perceived prestige and closer proximity to the authority figure are associated with increased obedience. Note that conformity is limited to changes in behavior caused by other people; it does not refer to the effects of … The journal of abnormal and social psychology, 51(3), 629. Informational influence is conformity under acceptance of evidence about reality which has been provided by others (Myers, 2009). They quickly found that the majority of humans are surprisingly obedient to authority. I thought I enjoyed watching it before, but after having a more complete understanding of social psychology, it makes watching it even more interesting! Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Referent informational influence theory explains group polarization as conformity, through self‐categorization, to a local in‐group norm which is polarized as a result of the in‐group being located towards an extreme of the salient comparative context or social frame of reference. Additionally, neither Milgram nor Zimbardo informed subjects ahead of time of the nature of their participation. It is fascinating to me to see how so many aspects of group and organizational social psychology can be seen in something as mindless as a reality TV gameshow. These people were confederates, or individuals who were posing as other participants but were really working for the researchers. Informational social influence leads to real, long-lasting changes in beliefs. Social Influence: MCQ Revision Test 1 for AQA A Level Psychology. Powered by Often, a majority of a group will decide to work against a certain individual and, even if others disagree, they do not want to go against this majority group and make themselves a future enemy. WordPress. Informational social influence would explain why children typically copy the behavior of their parents and teachers as children believe that adults have a better sense of right and wrong. There is a crisis. These experiments measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience. The extreme ideas seem less risky as it appears the view is held by numerous like-minded people. They were then asked to estimate the amount it moved; however, there was no real movement. Information social influence occurs when people conform to peer views in an attempt to reach the correct answer for themselves; it is the desire to be correct. Informational influence refers to new information or arguments provided in a group discussion that change a group member’s attitudes, beliefs, or behavior. In the Stanford prison experiment, participants were selected to take on randomly assigned roles of prisoner or guard in a mock prison, and they adapted to their roles beyond the experimenter’s expectations. Psychologists describe informational influence as following whatever work the crowd is doing, believing that they are a source of information. Nazi Germany is often cited as a prime example of the negative potential of groupthink because a number of factors, such as shared illusions and rationalizations and a lack of individual accountability, allowed for a few powerful leaders to enlist many otherwise “normal” people in committing mass acts of violence. Since Anna has now ingratiated herself with Anthony, he is more likely to comply with her request. Internalization always involves public and private conformity. Factors that influence compliance include the following: In addition to these factors, the following techniques have been proven to effectively induce compliance from another party. This influence is useful in the context of work and team settings; however, it was also evident in Nazi Germany. When you make decisions about how to behave, there are many sources of information available to help you make these decisions. Deindividuation and lack of expertise in the participants were also associated with higher levels of obedience. When a person is in a situation where s/he is unsure of the correct way to behave, s/he will often look to others for cues concerning the correct behavior. Psychologists describe informational influence as following whatever work the crowd is doing, believing that they are a source of information. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints. “Compliance” refers to a response, specifically a submission, made in reaction to an implicit or explicit request. The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures (1963) was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. While there are many ways a group can influence behavior, we will focus on three key phenomena: groupthink, groupshift, and deindividuation. In a control group with no pressure to conform, participants had an error rate of less 1%. There are two major motivators to conformity: normative influence and informational influence. Thus, social psychology studies individuals in a social context and how situational variables interact to influence behavior. It has been argued that the results of the study demonstrate the impressionability and obedience of people when provided with a legitimizing ideology, along with social and institutional support. Informational influence occurs when individuals seek out members While scrolling through channels on the TV one evening this week, I stumbled across one of my favorite shows, Survivor. Otherwise, it was only halted after the participant had given the maximum 450-volt shock three times in a row. This form of social influence is moderated by self-confidence and task difficulty. Some people posit that this happens because individuals experience a sense of anonymity in a group. The subject is more likely to comply with this change in cost since he or she feels like an agreement has already occurred. Normative social influence is one of conformity.It is "the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them." The participant and confederates were instructed to provide their answers out loud, and the confederates were told to sometimes unanimously provide a correct answer and sometimes an incorrect answer. Asch repeated this experiment with different experimental variables and identified several factors that influence conformity. Finally, viewers can definitely see both normative and informational influences at play in decision making in Survivor. Both men and women will conform to current norms in order to be accepted by society and avoid social rejection. The Abu Ghraib prison scandal has been interpreted based on the results of this study, suggesting that deindividuation may also have impacted the guards’ behavior in that situation. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. A confederate is someone who is a part of the experiment, but who pretends to be a participant in the study. Compliance is more likely to occur when the requester has previously complied with one of the target’s requests. Groupthink happens when group members, faced with an important choice, become so focused on making a smooth, quick decision that they overlook other, possibly more fruitful options. Normative influence occurs when an individual conforms in order to gain social acceptance and avoid social rejection. Informational influence is fueled by wanting to know what’s right, whereas normative influence is motivated by wanting to get along. Informational Social Influence. On the first day, each person perceived different amounts of movement, as they participated in the experiment individually. This is the deepest level of conformity were the beliefs of the group become part of the individual’s own belief system. Normative Social Influence. These results demonstrate that participants were willing to obey an authority figure and administer extremely harmful (and potentially lethal) shocks. social influence. She then says, “Well, if you won’t pay for me to go to Australia, will you at least pay for me to go to New York?” Her parents are more likely to comply with the more reasonable request, after having rejected the initial, extreme request. This is normative social influence -- influence resulting in the desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Groupthink: This image outlines the requirements, symptoms, and defects of groupthink in detail. A group of mildly racist people may become viciously racist when together. Groupshift is a phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position. Norms That Influence The social norms at work in normative influence can be thought as the set of acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs governing a particular group or situation. In using the foot-in-the-door technique, the subject is asked to perform a small request, and after agreeing, a larger request is made. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. © 2021. I think one of the things that makes Survivor so interesting and drama-filled is the fact that, especially in the beginning, they force the tribes, or teams as I will call them here, to stay in the forming and storming stages of Tuckman’s developmental stages of groups. Presence of a true partner, who was another real participant and gave the correct response, decreased levels of conformity. Obedience is generally distinguished from compliance (behavior influenced by peers) and conformity (behavior intended to match that of the majority). Informational social influence is when you conform despite disagreeing with the behavior others are doing. As the contestants on the show get to know one another and figure out who they want to form alliances with or work against, there are many instances where constants will attribute another person’s actions or attitudes to that person’s personal disposition. We also see a lot of examples of the fundamental attribution error in Survivor. After running these experiments, Milgram and Zimbardo concluded that the following factors affect obedience: The Milgram and Zimbardo experiments stand as dramatic demonstrations of the power of authority and other situational factors in human behavior. Student videos. We believe that choosing the jacket was the right thing to do and that the crowd will lead us to the baggage carousel. It is informally defined as the tendency to act or think like members of a group. Social influence occurs when our behaviour is influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of others. Solomon Asch and conformity: The image shown is an example from Solomon Asch’s landmark experiment in conformity (1951). You conform to what other people are doing so you can be accepted and avoid social ridicule. Informational Social Influence is where a person conforms to gain knowledge, or because they believe that someone else is ‘right’. The participants were instructed that they had to shock a person in another room for every wrong answer on a learning task, and the shocks increased with intensity for each wrong answer. The opposite effect is true as well: if Susan has been unemployed for a long time, employers may assume it is because others have not wanted to hire her. Early attempts to explain the Holocaust had focused on the idea that there was something distinctive about German culture that had allowed the Holocaust to take place. "Conformity is the most general concept and refers to any change in behavior caused by another person or group; the individual acted in some way because of influence from others. We often hear comments along the lines of “I’ve never been outside of my city before, so this is really different” or “I just lashed out because I’m so tired/hungry/stressed”. The request may be explicit (directly stated) or implicit (subtly implied); the target may or may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way. These factors can lead a group to make a catastrophically bad decision. Conformity is the most common and pervasive form of social influence. Obedience is generally distinguished from compliance (behavior influenced by peers) and conformity (behavior intended to match that of the majority). The experiment even affected Zimbardo himself, who, in his role as the superintendent, permitted the abuse to continue. In Milgram’s first set of experiments, 65% of participants administered the full 450-volt shock, even though most were very uncomfortable doing so. Minority influence is the degree to which a smaller faction within the group maintaining a different position on an issue influences the group during decision making. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. They will, therefore, try harder to find flaws in her and her application. From the second through the fourth day of the study, estimates were agreed upon by the group. The same request made in isolation, however (just asking for a trip to New York), would not have been as effective. Explain how certain motivators and factors may influence conformity. 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